Forest Types of the United States


Originator: USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program & Geospatial Technology and Applications Center (GTAC)
Publication_Date: 2008
Title: Conterminous U.S. and Alaska Forest Type Mapping Using Forest Inventory and Analysis Data
Authors: B. Ruefenacht, M.V. Finco, M.D. Nelson, R. Czaplewski, E.H. Helmer, J.A. Blackard, G.R. Holden, A.J. Lister, D. Salajanu, D. Weyermann, K. Winterberger
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Series_Name: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
Issue_Identification: In Press
Publisher: American Society of Photogrammetry
Online_Linkage: <>
This dataset portrays 141 forest types across the contiguous United States. These data were derived from MODIS composite images from the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons in combination with nearly 100 other geospatial data layers, including elevation, slope, aspect, ecoregions, and PRISM climate data.

The dataset was developed as a collaborative effort between the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring programs and the USFS Geospatial Technology and Applications Center.

The purpose of this dataset is to portray broad distribution patterns of forest cover in the United States and provide input to national scale modeling projects. The data should not be displayed at scales smaller than 1:2,000,000. Independent accuracy assessments were conducted using a 10% holdout of the training data, and are available through the data source contact.
Calendar_Date: 2004
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Irregular
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -127.956960
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -65.258798
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.650457
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.807320
Theme_Keyword: Forest Type
Theme_Keyword: MODIS
Theme_Keyword: Forest Cover
Theme_Keyword: Land Cover
Theme_Keyword: Vegetation
Theme_Keyword: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Theme_Keyword: Forest Inventory and Analysis
Theme_Keyword: FIA
Place_Keyword: CONUS
Place_Keyword: Contiguous United States
Access_Constraints: None
None. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. Using the data for other than their intended purpose may yield inaccurate or misleading results.
Contact_Person: Bonnie Ruefenacht, Ph.D.
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service Forest Geospatial Technology and Applications Center
Contact_Position: Remote Sensing Analyst
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 125 South State Street, Suite 7105
City: Salt Lake City
State_or_Province: Utah
Postal_Code: 84138
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 801-975-3828
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 801-975-3478
Acknowledgement of the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program and Geospatial Technology and Applications Center would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.0 (Build 2195) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog

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Forest types are are logical ecological groupings of species mixes as defined by Eyre (1980). There are 141 national forest type groups. Class accuracy was assessed using a randomly selected independent hold out of 6552 plots. Overall CONUS-wide accuracy for the forest types is 55%. Individual class accuracies are available from from the producer of the dataset.

Eyre, F.H. ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington DC: Society of American Foresters; 148 p.

Originator: University of Maryland
Title: Global Land Cover Facility
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
The GLCF develops and distributes remotely sensed satellite data and products concerned with land cover from the local to global scales. MODIS 32-day composite images are available for download.
Online_Linkage: <>
Source_Scale_Denominator: 250-meter
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Beginning_Date: 2002
Ending_Date: 2003
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: MODIS
Source_Contribution: 32-day MODIS composites
Originator: USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis Program
Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: Forest Inventory Plot Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
The Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the Forest Service has been in continuous operation since 1930 with a mission to "make and keep current a comprehensive inventory and analysis of the present and prospective conditions of and requirements for the renewable resources of the forest and rangelands of the United States." FIA reports on status and trends in forest area and location; in the species, size, and health of trees; in total tree growth, mortality, and removals by harvest; in wood production and utilization rates by various products; and in forest land ownership. FIA data is protected by the Food Security Act of 1985 as amended (7 U.S.C. 2276(d)), and as such is not publicly distributable.
Online_Linkage: <>
Source_Scale_Denominator: >1000
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: FIA
Training and Accuracy Assessment data for used to develop the classification
Originator: Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS)
Title: PRISM Climate Data
Spatially distributed monthly and annual precipitation. Each file represents 1 month of 1 year for the period January 1997 to the present. Distribution of the point measurements to a spatial grid was accomplished using the PRISM model, developed by Christopher Daly, Director, Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University.
Online_Linkage: <>
Source_Scale_Denominator: <2,000,000
Type_of_Source_Media: disc
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: PRISM
Source_Contribution: Climate Data - Mean / Min / Max Temp and Precip
Originator: USGS
Title: National Elevation Dataset
The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) was developed by merging the highest-resolution, best quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for the conterminous US and 1:63,360-scale DEM data for Alaska.
Online_Linkage: <>
Source_Scale_Denominator: 24,000
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: National Elevation Data
Digital elevation data from which elevation , slope and aspect variables were derived
The methodology used to produce the national forest type database combined ground-truth (from FIA plot data) with multi-date imagery and variety of other spatially continuous geospatial data. The predictor data themes include, - Elevation, slope, and aspect
- Ecological region layers
- USGS Mapping Zones, Bailey's Ecoregions
- STATSGO data layers (Lower 48)
- Available water capacity, soil bulk density, soil permeability, soil ph, soil porosity, soil plasticity, depth to bedrock, rock volume, soil types, and soil texture
- MODIS Vegetation Indices such as EVI, NDVI.
- MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields
- Percent tree cover, percent herbaceous cover, and percent bare ground
- MODIS fire points for developed from the MODIS Active Fire Maps
- MODIS 8-day composites
- Multiple dates from the spring, summer, and fall
- All MODIS 32-day composite images that are cloud-free between the years 2001-2003
- USGS NLCD layer summaries
- PRISM temperature and precipitation - Minimums, maximums, and averages

Statistical models developed in Rulequest's See5 data mining software link the FIA plot variables with the imagery and geospatial data. See5 creates classification trees, which have the advantage of not assuming parametric properties within the predictor data and are thus are more appropriate for the multi-scale, multi-source data, which are being used.

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Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 11658
Column_Count: 18494
Vertical_Count: 1

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Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area
Standard_Parallel: 29.500000
Standard_Parallel: 45.500000
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -96.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 23.000000
False_Easting: 0.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Abscissa_Resolution: 250.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 250.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS 1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698

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Entity_Type_Label: Layer_1
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute_Definition: FIA / SAF Forest Type Code
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 101 - 995
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Forest Type Code
101 Jack pine
102 Red pine
103 Eastern white pine
104 Eastern White pine / Eastern hemlock
105 Eastern hemlock
121 Balsam fir
122 White spruce
123 Red spruce
124 Red spruce / balsam fir
125 Black spruce
126 Tamarack
127 Northern white-cedar
141 Longleaf pine
142 Slash pine
161 Loblolly pine
162 Shortleaf pine
163 Virginia pine
164 Sand pine
165 Table-mountain pine
166 Pond pine
167 Pitch pine
168 Spruce pine
181 Eastern redcedar
182 Rocky Mountain juniper
183 Western juniper
184 Juniper woodland
185 Pinyon juniper woodland
201 Douglas-fir
202 Port-Orford-cedar
221 Ponderosa pine
222 Incense cedar
223 Jeffrey pine / Coulter pine / bigcone Douglas-fir
224 Sugar pine
241 Western white pine
261 White fir
262 Red fir
263 Noble fir
264 Pacific silver fir
265 Engelmann spruce
266 Engelmann spruce / subalpine fir
267 Grand fir
268 Subalpine fir
269 Blue spruce
270 Mountain hemlock
271 Alaska-yellow-cedar
281 Lodgepole pine
301 Western hemlock
304 Western redcedar
305 Sitka spruce
321 Western larch
341 Redwood
342 Giant sequoia
361 Knobcone pine
362 Southwest white pine
363 Bishop pine
364 Monterey pine
365 Foxtail pine / bristlecone pine
366 Limber pine
367 Whitebark pine
368 Misc. western softwoods
371 California mixed conifer
381 Scotch pine
382 Australian pine
383 Other exotic softwoods
384 Norway Spruce
385 Introduced larch
401 Eastern white pine / N. red oak / white ash
402 Eastern redcedar / hardwood
403 Longleaf pine / oak
404 Shortleaf pine / oak
405 Virginia pine / southern red oak
406 Loblolly pine / hardwood
407 Slash pine / hardwood
409 Other pine / hardwood
501 Post oak / blackjack oak
502 Chestnut oak
503 White oak / red oak / hickory
504 White oak
505 Northern red oak
506 Yellow-poplar / white oak / N. red oak
507 Sassafras / persimmon
508 Sweetgum / yellow-poplar
509 Bur oak
510 Scarlet oak
511 Yellow-poplar
512 Black walnut
513 Black locust
514 Southern scrub oak
515 Chestnut oak / black oak / scarlet oak
519 Red maple / oak
520 Mixed upland hardwoods
601 Swamp chestnut oak / cherrybark oak
602 Sweetgum / Nuttall oak / willow oak
605 Overcup oak / water hickory
606 Atlantic white-cedar
607 Baldcypress / water tupelo
608 Sweetbay / swamp tupelo / red maple
701 Black ash / American elm / red maple
702 River birch / sycamore
703 Cottonwood
704 Willow
705 Sycamore / pecan / American elm
706 Sugarberry / hackberry / elm / green ash
707 Silver maple / American elm
708 Red maple / lowland
709 Cottonwood / willow
722 Oregon ash
801 Sugar maple / beech / yellow birch
802 Black cherry
803 Cherry / ash / yellow-poplar
805 Hard maple / basswood
807 Elm / ash / locust
809 Red maple / upland
901 Aspen
902 Paper birch
904 Balsam poplar
911 Red alder
912 Bigleaf maple
921 Gray pine
922 California black oak
923 Oregon white oak
924 Blue oak
925 Deciduous oak woodland
926 Evergreen oak woodland
931 Coast live oak
932 Canyon live oak / interior live oak
941 Tanoak
942 Califonia laurel
943 Giant chinkapin
951 Pacific madrone
952 Mesquite Woodland
953 Cercocarpus woodland
954 Intermountain maple woodland
955 Misc. western hardwood woodlands
981 Sabal palm
982 Mangrove
989 Other tropical
991 Paulownia
992 Melaluca
993 Eucalyptus
995 Other exotic hardwoods
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute_Label: Count
Attribute_Label: Red
Attribute_Label: Green
Attribute_Label: Blue
Attribute_Label: Class_names

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Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Although these data have been used by the USDA Forest Service, the USDA Forest Service shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. These data are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such.

It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. Using the data for other than their intended purpose may yield inaccurate or misleading results. The USDA Forest Service gives no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from the USDA Forest Service server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USDA Forest Service, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the utility of the data on another system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.

The USDA Forest Service reserves the right to correct, update or modify this data and related materials without notification.

Transfer_Size: 0.000

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Metadata_Date: 20041103
Metadata_Review_Date: 20041103
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service Geospatial Technology and Applications Center
Contact_Person: Bonnie Ruefenacht
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 125 South State Street, Suite 7105
City: Salt Lake City
State_or_Province: Utah
Postal_Code: 84138
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 801-975-3828
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 801-975-3478
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Online_Linkage: <>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile
Online_Linkage: <>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile

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